1. Intraneuronal communication can be defined as ___________a) chemical signaling between neuronsb) signals within an individual neuronc) signals shared electrically (through gap junctions) among several neuronsd) electrical (ion-based) signaling between neurons2. ______ directly causes a change in voltage across the neuron cell membranea) Re-distribution of ion chargeb) Neurotransmitter release at the synapsec) Oligodendrocyte ensheathing of axonsd) The types of lipids in the neural membrane3. EPSPs ________the cell membrane , moving the membrane potential __________thresholdfor firing an action potentiala) hyperpolarize; farther fromb) depolarize; farther fromc) depolarize; closer tod) hyperpolarize; closer to4. Using the steps identified below, place the steps of neuron function in the correct order1. action potential is initiated at the axon hillock2. synaptic vesicles fuse with the membrane of axon terminal3. membrane potential change at the dendrite of the postsynaptic neuron4. action potential travels along the axon of the postsynaptic neuron5. neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic clef(HINT 3 is the first step)a)3,1,2,4,5b) 3,1,4,2,5c) 3,4,1,5,2d) 3,1,4,5,25. At resting membrane potential the concentration of sodium is higher _______the neuron andthe concentration of potassium is higher_______the neurona)outside;insideb)inside;outsidec)inside;insided)outside;outside6. At rest________in extracellular fluid than in intracellular fluida) calcium is lowerb) sodium is lowerc) chloride is higherd) potassium is higher7.Using the image, identify the location during an action potential when sodium will have thehighest intracellular (inside the cell) concentrationa)site1b)site3c)site5d)site68. If a stimulus opens a sodium channel in a neuron membrane, the membrane potential willbecome__________a) repolarizedb)hyperpolarizedc)less negatived)less positive9. During an action potential, potassium channelsa) open at the same time that sodium channels openb) contribute to repolarization (restoring polarized statec) contribute to depolarizationd) opened when the membrane potential reached firing threshold10. which set of ions is important to normal neural function/physiology and action potentialproduction?a) sodium, magnesium, calcium, sulfurb) sodium, potassium, phosphorus, nitrogenc) potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorided) potassium, chloride , sodium11. Which ions would expect to have higher intracellular concentrations at resting potential?a) potassium and chlorideb) potassiumc) potassium and sodiumd) sodium and chloride12. In neural function, what is the role played by the energy source ATP? The energy from thebonds of ATP are needed to ________a) open sodium channels when membrane potential reaches firing thresholdb) generate an EPSPs in dendritesc) engage the sodium-potassium pump during repolarizationd) trigger an action potential at the axon hillock13.___________is an essential step for causing vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membranea) calcium influx into the presynaptic terminalb) Hyperpolarization at the presynaptic terminalc) movement of chloride ions across the postsynaptic membrane of dendritesd) inhibition at the postsynaptic membrane of dendrites14. an action potential will be generated if stimulation_______________a) causes the membrane potential at the axon hillock to reach threshold for firing actionpotentialb) causes an IPSP in the postsynaptic membrane of the dendrite of the target neuronc) activates the sodium potassium pumpleads to chloride influxd) inactivates voltage-gated sodium channels at the axon hillock15. The purpose of myelinating neural axons is to ____________a) increase Cl-influxb) generate an EPSPc) depolarize the presynaptic membraned) increase the speed that action potentials travel down an axone) spatial summation16. where in the neuron will you definitely find voltage-gated ion channelsa) dendritesb) mitochondriac) cell somad) nucleuse) axon hillock17. which of the following ions enhance neurotransmitter release into synaptic clefa) Ca2+b) Na+c) Cld) S218. The time course of the electrical/ionic features of an action potential are determined mainlyby _________a) Na+, K+b) Na+, Kc) Na-, Cld) Na+, K-, Ca2+19. At the maximum amplitude of an action potential, potassium ions ________the cellmembrane through (at) potassium channels/gatesa) enterb)blockc)accumulated)exit20. When potassium ions leave the intracellular space near the maximum height of an actionpotential, they will_________membranea)repolarizeb) depolarizec)bind to receptor ond) inactivate the Na-K pump21. which of the following is âNOTâ a feature of the relative refractory period?a) occurs during hyperpolarizationb) occurs before cell membrane potential returns to Vrest (resting membrane potential) afer anaction potentialc) K+ ions flow out of the neurond) It is not possible to produce an action potential regardless of stimulus strengthe) The intracellular compartment is being depleted of positive charge22. __________is the balance of an ionâs concentration gradient and any charge attraction orrepulsiona) receptor bindingb) electrochemical gradientc)vesicular released)dissociation23. What feature of voltage-gated sodium channels prevents action potentials from occurringduring the absolute refractory period?a) active state conformationb) closed state conformationc) inactive state conformationd) none of these24. What is the extent and direction of action potential flow in a neuron?a)Axon hillockAxon terminalb) Dendrite-Axon hillockc) Axondendrited) Cell soma Axon terminale) Axon Axon hillock25. Saltatory conduction occurs becausea)myelin is a good conductor of ionsb) sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranvierc) myelin has many sodium and potassium channels to facilitate action potential generationd) potassium channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranviere) both B and D
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