1. Some birds are known as honey guides because they may be followed by humans to wild beehives. When the humans take honey from the hives, the birds are able to feast on the honey and bees, too. This type of relationship can best be described as…A. CommensalismB. MutualismC. SymbiosisD. Parasitism2. Cougars are predators that often eat weakened or diseased animals. This is a description of the … of cougars.A. HabitatB. CommunityC. NicheD. None of these3. Referring to the image, suppose 10,000 units of energy are available at the level of the grasses. What is the total number of energy units lost by the time energy reaches the coyote?A. 90 unitsB. 990 unitsC. 9900 unitsD. 9990 units4. Referring to the image, the coyotes would be considered …A. HerbivoresB. Third-level consumersC. Second-level consumersD. Decomposers5. Which of the following is the ultimate source of energy for the pyramid n the figure?A. GrassB. HeatC. SunlightD. Water6. Which of the following information could be included in the description of a grasshopper’s niche, but not in a description of its habitat?A. Continent where it livesB. Locations where it sheltersC. Plant species it eatsD. Temperatures it experiences7. Organisms with overlapping niches probably have which type of relationship?A. CommensalB. CompetitiveC. MutualisticD. Parasitic8. What is “soil type” to an earthworm?A. Abiotic factorB. BiomeC. Biotic factorD. Carbon source9. A researcher is studying reproduction in Taraxacum officinale, the dandelion. She decides to measure only soil temperature. You think her study is poorly-designed. Why?A. Biotic factors probably play a large role in dandelion reproductionB. Dandelions are not affected by soil temperatureC. It is hard to measure soil temperature accuratelyD. Soil temperatures varies too much10. How long are food chains?A. 4 steps longB. 3 steps longC. It varies with day lengthD. It varies with ecosystem11. Which of the following nutrients has only a short-term biogeochemical cycle?A. CarbonB. NitrogenC. OxygenD. Phosphorus12. Which process describes nitrogen fixation?A. Animals eat plants containing nitrogen and return it to the soil through urinationB. Bacteria take nitrogen from the air and convert it to a form usable by plantsC. Organisms die and are decomposed into ammonia in the soilD. Plants take nitrogen from the air and store it in their roots13. Your favorite plant is growing very slowly, and you would like to find some way to increase its growth rate. Which of the following should you try increasing first?A. NitrogenB. OxygenC. SodiumD. Calcium14. Which of the following allows the flow of energy through an ecosystem to happen?A. Abiotic factorsB. Cycling of nutrientsC. EvaporationD. Predation15. A student notices that her guppies reproduce most when her fish tank water is slightly alkaline. They stop reproducing if the water becomes acidic or if the water becomes too alkaline. This is an example of …A. Secondary successionB. Zones of toleranceC. CommunitiesD. Intertidal zones16. Which of the following statements is supported by these data?A. The size of the aquarium was a limiting factorB. Food was a limiting factorC. As long as Ling keeps adding more food, the guppy population will continue to growD. Guppies reproduce rapidly17. In the figure, where will you most likely find the greatest diversity?A. DB. CC. BD. A18. In the figure, which section would have a lack of organisms due to an overabundance of resources?A. BB. AC. DD. C19. What type of succession is most likely to happen in the figure?A. PrimaryB. SecondaryC. TertiaryD. Climax20. At which stage in the figure are the most pioneer species found?A. CB. DC. AD. B21. What type of species would most likely be found in the area labeled “D” in the figure?A. One that requires plenty of oxygenB. Plants that require lightC. Amphibians that need a warm habitatD. Decomposers that feed on dead organisms22. Personnel from the parks department have investigated the problem and present you with the following theories. Weigh the evidence and decide which is the best explanation for the problem.A. An unusually war spring resulted in a delayed overturn of the lake so nutrients in the water are limitedB. Native carp in the lake are stirring up the bottom with their feeding activities, making the water cloudyC. Fertilizer from park lawns has run off into the water, adding too many nutrients to the systemD. Algae are overgrowing in the water because it is warmer than usual this year23. Which of the following hypotheses is most valuable in explaining the trends seen in the data?A. Nereis occidentalis outcompetes Neanthes succinea at salinities under 14%B. Neanthes succinea reproduces most rapidly in areas at least 20 meters from the river mouthC. Both Nereis occidentalis and Neanthes succinea can survive at any salinityD. Nereis occidentalis is more resistant to salinity than Neanthes succinea24. Imagine you are listening to a series of student presentations in which the speakers hypothesize about the kinds of marine life they would expect to find in an abyssal marine zone. Why hypothesis do you find most compelling?A. Autotrophic organisms like seaweed and plankton will be common, along with many larger organisms supported by these producers.B. Coral reefs and high species diversity are expected, with many kinds of fish and invertebrates.C. Large open-ocean fish will live there, like tuna, marlin, and sharks.D. Low species diversity is predicted, except around hydrothermal vents where bacteria, fish, and crabs live.25. Some coral reefs off the east coast of South America are starting to die off. Satellite images reveal great plumes of sediment washing out of the mouths of rivers. What can you conclude, if anything, about the relationship between these two factors?A. Although the two factors coincide, they are not likely to be related.B. Deforestation on land results in lower oxygen levels in the atmosphere, which stresses the reef.C. Deforestation on land allows erosion to wash away topsoil, which smothers reefs.D. Burning of the rain forest increases atmospheric carbon dioxide to levels toxic to reefs.26. Compare primary and secondary succession. What is the distinction between them?A. Primary succession is the sequence of species that become established early in a newly colonized area, and secondary succession is the sequence of species that move in later.B. Primary succession is the establishment of a community in an area with no soil, while secondary succession is the establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed.C. Primary succession is the establishment of a new community in an existing ecosystem that was disturbed, while secondary succession is the establishment of a community in an area with no soil.D. Primary succession is the sequence of plants that colonize a new area, while secondary succession is the sequence of animals that move in later.27. Density, distribution, and growth rate are characteristics used to classify which one of the following?A. Populations28. Which of the following involves a situation in which a density-dependent factor influences a population?A. Several seasons passed during which rainfall was ample, winters were not severs and food for snow hares was in good supply.B. A hurricane severely disrupted a salt marsh and uprooted most of the marsh grass in an estuary.C. A forest firs on the north side of a mountain forced the white-tailed deer from the north side to move into the range of the white-tailed deer on the south side of the mountain, making food more scarce.D. After a heavy rain, pesticides that were applied to a cotton crop to control weevils ran off into a waterway that flows next to a field.29. Which of the following statements is correct?A. Population size of predators increases when their prey is scarce.B. Competition for resources is density-independent when food is plentiful.C. Disease is density-dependent because transmission occurs more easily when a population is large.D. A change in average temperature is a density-dependent factor because fewer organisms can acclimate to variations in temperature.30. To assess a population’s growth rate, an ecologist must know how many individuals are born, how many died, and how many move away in a given period of time. What else must an ecologist know?A. How many individuals find matesB. How many individuals move in from somewhere elseC. How many individuals carry communicable diseasesD. How many individuals are young or old31. You are an ecologist collecting data about the declining growth rate of the critically endangered Philippine eagle. The eagles’ only known population is estimated to have about 350-650 individuals. Which of the following can you assume is zero?A. NatalityB. MortalityC. EmigrationD. Immigration32. A population’s emigration in one month totaled three individuals. During the same period, immigration was 17 individuals. Natality was 12, and mortality was 26 due to a parasite infection. What was the net effect on the population size?A. 033. How does the logistic model of population growth differ from the exponential model?A. The exponential model shows a restricted growth rate.B. The logistic model considers the environment’s carrying capacity.C. The graph of the exponential model is S shaped.D. The graph of the logistic model has a longer lag phase34. A demographer is investigating various populations to find out how they use resources. She wants to select the population that uses most resources per individual. Which population should she choose for her study?A. The population of a industrially developed countryB. The population of a South American indigenous peopleC. The population of a developing county with a high birthrateD. The population of an agricultural society with a low death rate35. The Kimmarie Orchid became extinct in the wild due to …A. Overcollection36. The hobbyists are trying to correct the Kimmarie Orchid problem they caused by using a …A. Reintroduction program37. Consider the following pairs of organisms: large predators and small predators; large herbivores and small herbivores; and migratory animals and non-migratory animals. The two animals most likely to suffer the most from habitat fragmentation are theA. Large predators and migratory animals38. What does the graph in the figure tell you?A. The farther from land, the more biodiversityB. The larger the islet, the more biodiversityC. Islet size and biodiversity are not relatedD. Biodiversity decreases with islet size39. Using the graph, extrapolate what would happen to biodiversity on a large island or continent.A. Biodiversity would increase greatlyB. Biodiversity would decrease greatlyC. Biodiversity would first increase, then decreaseD. Biodiversity would first decrease, then increase40. Using the information from the graph, predict what would happen to biodiversity if the ocean level increased.A. It would increaseB. It would remain the sameC. It would decreaseD. It would disappear41. What effect did the loss of species B have on species A and D in the figure?A. It caused the populations of A and D to decreaseB. It cause the populations of A and D to increaseC. It cause the populations of A and D to become extinctD. It had no effect on the populations of A and D
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