1. What can be said about the diversity of life in the splash zone compared to that of the submerged zone? There is less biodiversity in the splash zone because there is varying salinity. There is more diversity in the splash zone because there are fewer predators. There is more biodiversity in the splash zone because there are more nutrients available. There is less biodiversity in the splash zone because there is a lower average temperature.2. When a dolphin jumps, it moves its muscles and chemical potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. Some of this energy is lost to the dolphin. Explain why this phenomenon does not violate the Law of Conservation of Energy. The dolphin is a closed system, so energy is allowed to exit the system. The energy is transferred to waves in the surrounding water. The muscles recapture the energy when they relax after contractions. The Law of Conservation of Energy does not apply to biological systems.3. What is the average salinity of the world ocean? 0.02 percent 3.5 percent 22.9 percent 59.6 percent4. Coal-fired power plants release emissions such as nitrogen compounds into the air. The nitrogen and water cycle combine when nitrogen returns to the soil as acid rain through which water cycle process? Precipitation Respiration Transpiration Nitrification5. What evidence suggests that the ocean influences climate change? The ocean absorbs carbon dioxide. The ocean releases carbon dioxide. The ocean moves cold water to the Arctic. The ocean moves warm water to the equator.6. You are on a field trip and are recording the amount of mass in a volume of water. What are you measuring? The concentration of bacteria in seawater The concentration of dissolved oxygen in seawater The concentration of salt in seawater The density of seawater7. How does climate change affect the ocean ecosystem? Climate change causes waves to be smaller in the Northern Hemisphere and larger in the Southern Hemisphere. Climate change causes ocean currents to stop in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Southern Hemisphere. Climate change increases temperatures in the ocean. Climate change decreases temperatures in the ocean.8. Trichodesmium is a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Why might this cyanobacteria be important to other organisms in nitrogen-poor waters? They convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to organic compounds including ammonia (NH3). They convert inorganic nitrogen to ammonia (NH3) in the ocean. They convert organic nitrogen compounds to into other nitrogen compounds. They convert nitrates from the water into nitrogen gas (N2) that is released into the atmosphere.9. What adaptations allow organisms to survive in the supralittoral zone of a rocky beach? The ability to endure little sun exposure and to live underwater The ability to endure both long periods of time without water and little sun exposure The ability to both attach to solid materials and endure long periods of time without water The ability to both attach to solid materials and endure long periods of time in low temperatures10. Seasonal variations in ocean temperatures can impact the populations of living organisms in the ocean despite the high specific heat of water. How would herbivores initially be affected by these changes? Due to the high specific heat of the ocean, the change in temperature would be small, so the phytoplankton population would thrive, allowing herbivores to decrease in number. Due to the high specific heat of the ocean, there is not much temperature change, so there would be no impact on the phytoplankton population, and no impact on the number of herbivores. Higher ocean temperatures allow for phytoplankton to bloom, increasing the food available to herbivores, allowing herbivores to increase in number. Lower ocean temperatures allow for phytoplankton to bloom, increasing the food available to herbivores, allowing herbivores to increase in number.11. In general, how do most nutrients reach the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones? Nutrients sink into these zones from the epipelagic zone. Nutrients diffuse into these zones from deeper water. Nutrients are produced by phytoplankton living in these zones. Nutrients are produced by zooplankton living in these zones.
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