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• Which of the following statements are true regarding Thermodynamics? There m

• Which of the following statements are true regarding Thermodynamics? There may be more than one correct answer!A. If the reactants have a lower free energy than the products, the reaction is spontaneous.B. Endergonic reactions typically have a large increase in enthalpy.C. A positive ?G will result in an exergonic reaction.D. A spontaneous reaction will have an increase in S• Which of the following is NOT an example of an energy change?A. A shoe drops, converting potential energy to kinetic energy.B. A chemical reaction converts the energy in sunlight into the chemical energy in formaldehyde.C. All of these are true.D. Sunlight strikes a prism, separating the light into distinct wavelengths.E. The electrical energy flowing through a lightbulb’s filament is converted into light and heat.The electrons in the covalent bonds of glucose are storing energy in the form of kinetic energy.TrueFalse• In a RedOx reaction, electrons are often transferred as…A. hydrogen ionsB. heatC. oxygen atomsD. None of the above.E. electronsIn photosynthesis, carbon dioxide (CO2) is converted to glucose. During this process, the carbon atoms…A. are hydrated because water (H2O) is added to the system.B. None of these are true.C. are oxidized because they have lost electrons with the removal of oxygen.D. are reduced because the electrons from the oxygen atom have moved closer to the carbon atom.E. are energetically coupled to the reduction of water to oxygen gas (O2).• A molecule that is reduced is known as an electron…1. Why are endergonic and exergonic reactions typically coupled?A. Newton’s laws of motion state that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Therefore, in a chemical reaction, energy must both be released and absorbed.B. The free energy released from the exergonic reaction is used to drive the non-spontaneous endergonic reaction.C. An exergonic reaction will proceed too slowly without an endergonic reaction to stabilize the transition state.D. In order to maintain equilibrium, the heat lost in an exergonic reaction is absorbed by the endergonic reaction, to keep the free energy at 0.1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is an excellent source of energy because…A. It stores the energy released during glucose oxidation as potential energy in its phosphate bonds.B. It can donate its sugar molecule, adenosine, directly to the Krebs cycle for respiration.C. It can function both as an nucleotide for DNA and supply energy for the cell.D. It is able to efficiently break down glucose into CO2 and H2O, releasing the potential energy stored in the bonds.1. Which is false regarding a catalyst?A. A catalyst provides a stable transition state for a reaction.B. A catalyst can either increase or decrease the rate of a reaction.C. A catalyst will remain unchanged after the reaction is complete.D. A catalyst is used to lower the activation energy of a reaction.Casein is a protein found in milk. Rennilase breaks the bonds of casein, converting it into paracasein and water. Rennilase is a /anA. SubstrateB. InhibitorC. ProductD. Enzyme1. Which statement concerning competitive and allosteric inhibitors is FALSE?A. Allosteric inhibitors do not depend on substrate concentrationB. Allosteric inhibitors will change the shape of the active siteC. The function of a competitive inhibitor is dependent on its concentration compared to that of the substrateD. Competitive inhibitors bind reversibly to the active siteE. Both inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme?G = ?H-T?S is the equation for thermodynamics where ?G is the free energy of the reaction. What determines if a reaction is spontaneous?A. The temperature only – reactions are only spontaneous at high temperaturesB. If it decreases the potential energy (H) of the substances involvedC. The combined effect of changes in potential energy and entropyD. If it increases the disorder (entropy, S) of the substances involvedAn enzyme is a protein that functions toA. Destabilize the transition stateB. Increase the activation energy of a reactionC. Decrease the activation energy of a reactionD. Lower the free energy of a reactionIf an enzyme had a mutation in a single amino acid that caused the active site to have a charged lysine residue in place of a non-polar leucine residue which is the most likely scenario?A. The substrate would enter the active site and form a product, but the products would be trapped.B. The enzyme would require a metal ion, such as Zinc (Zn) or Iron (Fe), in order to function normally.C. An allosteric activator would be required to change the shape of the active site, allowing the substrate to bind.D. The substrate would no longer fit in the active site, so the enzyme specificity is lost.

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