All questions are multiple choice with the answers below.A paper towel is to its cardboard roll as the myelin sheath is to the_______________ .somadendriteSchwann cellAxonCongenital hypothyroidism is characterized by axons that fail to become wrapped with myelin during development. The resulting effect on neurotransmission in the developing fetus would bedecreased neuronal conduction speedinability of the fetus to produce iodineincreased neuronal conduction speedhyper-secretion of thyroid hormoneWhen the membrane of an axon is at resting potential, which of the following is true?The exterior of the cell has a net negative charge and the interior has a net positive charge.The exterior of the cell has a net negative charge and the interior is neutral.The exterior of the cell has a net positive charge and the interior has a net negative chargeThe exterior of the cell has a net positive charge and the interior is neutral.For the sake of this question, assume that Sarin is a toxic nerve gas that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. What does this cause at the neuromuscular junction?An increase in acetylcholine which will continue to stimulate the muscle to contractA decrease in acetylcholine which will halt the muscle contractionan increase in acetylcholinesterase, which will increase muscle contractionAn influx of calcium which decreases muscle contractionPlace the events at a chemical synapse in the order in which they occur:1. Action potential arrives at pre-synaptic neuronâs end bulbs; Ca2+ channels to open2. Increase of Ca2+ in bulbs causes vesicles to fuse with presynaptic neuronâs membrane3. Postsynaptic potential develops4. Neurotransmitter binds to receptors (ligand-gated channels) on postsynaptic membrane5. Neurotransmitter exocytosed; diffuses across synaptic cleft1,2,4,5,31,4,2,5,31,2,5,4,31,2,4,3,5A patient at the eye doctor explains that he is able to see fairly well in low light, but is having trouble distinguishing between the colors red, green and blue. The doctor’s first inclination about the source of his patients problem would most likely beA problem with the functioning of the patient’s rodsa defect in visual mechanoreceptorsthe beginnings of macular degenerationa disorder affecting the function of the patient’s conesCongenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is an inherited disease of the nervous system that afflicts a very small number of people worldwide and is caused by a defect in a particular signaling molecule in the nervous system. People with CIPA are unable to sense extreme fluctuations in temperature, thus many succumb to heat stroke or hypothermia. They also cannot sense pain, but they can sense pressure applied to the skin. Which of the following sensory structures or receptors could be dysfunctional in people with CIPA?nociceptorsthermoreceptorspacinian corpusclesnociceptors and thermoreceptorsA man standing in a park is talking to a friend 3 feet away and then turns to look at a dog 50 yards away. How does the eye adapt to allow him to clearly see these two different images?The ciliary muscles contract and the lens becomes more roundThe lens is moved backwardThe lens is moved forward.The ciliary muscles relax and the lens becomes more flat.Where does perception of sensory stimuli occur?in all receptorsin highly specialized receptors like hair cellsat synapses in the peripheral nervous systemin the central nervous systemThe correct sequence for a sound (a vibration) traveling into the mammalian ear would be listed aspinna, tympanum, ossicles of middle ear, oval window, basilar membrane, hair celltympanum, pinna, ossicles of middle ear, hair cell, oval window, basilar membranepinna, ossicles of middle ear, tympanum, basilar membrane, oval window, hair cellhair cell, pinna, basilar membrane, ossicles of middle ear, tympanum, oval window
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