BIOLOGY 181 LIFE IN THE OCEANS (6380)FALL 2016FINAL EXAMPART ONE: MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point each)1. The place where a species is found is called its:a. Communityb. Ecosystemc. Ecotoned. Habitate. Niche2. The role a species plays in an ecosystem is called its:a. Communityb. Ecosystemc. Ecotoned. Habitate. Niche3. The addition of nutrients to aquatic ecosystems is called:a. Euphemismb. Euphonyc. Euploidyd. Eutelye. Eutrophication4. The maintenance of the constancy of the internal environment in living things is called:a. Homeostasisb. Homeothermyc. Homologyd. Homoplasye. Homozygosity5. The boundary between the continental shelf and the continental rise is called the:a. Active marginb. Continental slopec. Passive margind. Subduction zonee. Thermocline 6. The most abundant cation dissolved in sea water is:a. Bariumb. Calciumc. Magnesiumd. Potassiume. Sodium7. The most abundant anion dissolved in sea water is:a. Bicarbonateb. Bromidec. Chlorided. Fluoridee. Sulfate8. A rapid change in salinity with depth is called a:a. Acidosisb. Haloclinec. Ketosisd. Pycnoclinee. Thermocline9. Tides with the maximum range are called:a. Diurnal tidesb. Neap tidesc. Mixed semi-diurnal tidesd. Semi-diurnal tidese. Spring tides10. Tides the with minimum range are called:a. Diurnal tidesb. Neap tidesc. Mixed semi-diurnal tidesd. Semi-diurnal tidese. Spring tides 11. Unicellular eukaryotes constitute the group known as the:a. Prokaryotesb. Proterospongiac. Protistad. Protozoae. Protura12. The organelle that carries out the function of photosynthesis is the:a. Calcisomeb. Chloroplastc. Lysosomed. Mitochondrione. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum13. The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates is called:a. Ammonificationb. Decarboxylationc. Denitrifcationd. Nitrificatione. Nitrogen fixation14. The outer shell, or frustule, of diatoms is composed of:a. Calcium carbideb. Calcium carbonatec. Calcium phosphated. Chitine. Silicon dioxide15. The red algae are known formally as the:a. Charophytab. Chlorophytac. Chysophytad. Phaeophytae. Rhodophyta 16. The brown algae are known formally as the:a. Charophytab. Chlorophytac. Chysophytad. Phaeophytae. Rhodophyta17. The skeleton of the Hexactinellida is made of:a. Calcium carbideb. Calcium carbonatec. Calcium phosphated. Chitine. Silicon dioxide18. The members of this phylum move by means of paddle-shaped appendages composed offused cilia called comb plates:a. Cnidariab. Ctenophorac. Placozoad. Poriferae. Vestimentifera19. This type of symmetry is characteristic of the vast majority of animal species:a. Bilateral symmetryb. Biradial symmetryc. Radial symmetryd. Spherical symmetry20. The radula is a type of feeding appendage unique to this phylum:a. Annelidab. Arthropodac. Echiurad. Molluscae. Nemertea 21. The members of this phylum are distinguished by the presence of a molted exoskeleton andjointed appendages:a. Annelidab. Arthropodac. Echinodermatad. Molluscae. Nemertea22. The members of this phylum are distinguished by pentamerous symmetry, a calcareousendoskeleton, and a system of fluid-filled appendages called the water vascular system:a. Annelidab. Arthropodac. Echinodermatad. Molluscae. Nemertea23. The sharks are able to detect electric fields due to the presence of electrosensing organscalled:a. Ampullae of Lorenzinib. Cristaec. Nuchal organsd. Ommatidiae. Statoliths24. This type of caudal fin produces lift as well as thrust and enables sharks to avoid sinking:a. Diphycercalb. Epicercalc. Heterocercald. Hyocercale. Homocercal25. This group of vertebrates are distinguished by the presence of a waterproof egg that can belaid on land:a. Amniotesb. Amphibiansc. Choanatesd. Choanoflagellatese. Chondrichthyes 26. The closest living relatives of the cetaceans is the:a. Elephantb. Elephant sealc. Hippopotamusd. Sea ottere. Walrus27. The closest living relatives of the Sirenians is the:a. Elephantb. Elephant sealc. Hippopotamusd. Sea ottere. Walrus28. Organisms that can tolerate a wide range of salinity are called:a. Eukaryoticb. Euryapsidsc. Euryhalined. Osmoconformerse. Stenohaline29. Symbiotic algae found in association with coral reefs are called:a. Coccolithophoridsb. Diatomsc. Foraminiferad. Radiolariae. Zooxanthellae30. Photosynthetic plankton are referred to as:a. Actinistiab. Ctenophorac. Foraminiferad. Radiolariae. Phytoplankton 31. Organisms that are planktonic only for part of their life cycles are called:a. Holoplanktonb. Meroplanktonc. Nektond. Phytoplanktone. Zooplankton32. The amount of energy contained in one trophic level that is passed up to the next is calledthe:a. Carrying capacityb. Entropyc. Primary productivityd. Standing crope. Trophic efficiency33. Organisms that live in or on the bottom are called the:a. Benthosb. Holoplanktonc. Meroplanktond. Nektone. Zooplankton34. The maximum number of individuals a habitat can support is called the:a. Carrying capacityb. Entropyc. Primary productivityd. Standing crope. Trophic efficiency35. The main polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants is:a. Celluloseb. Chitinc. Glycogend. Polyethylenee. Polyphenol 36. This term refers to the stinging cells of jellyfish:a. Nematocystb. Oocytec. Spermatocyted. Sporocytee. Trichocyst37. The accumulation of sensory and feeding structures at one end of a bilaterally symmetricanimal is called:a. Apodizationb. Cephalizationc. Debuccalizationd. Racemizatione. Sclerotization38. This term refers to the group of arthropods that includes the horseshoe crab:a. Arachnidab. Cheliceratac. Crustacead. Diplopodae. Myriapoda39. The sequential possession of male and then female reproductive organs by the sameindividual is called:a. Aposematismb. Isogamyc. Protandryd. Protogynye. Simultaneous hermaphroditism40. This protein serves as a store of oxygen that enables marine mammals to survive deep dives:a. Methemoglobinb. Myoglobinc. Myosind. Tropomyosine. Troponin PART TWO: ESSAY (10 points each)Question 1: Answer ONE of the following two questionsa. Compare and contrast active versus passive continental marginsb. Describe the four types of estuariesQuestion 2: Answer ONE of the following two questions:a. Discuss the forces that shape ocean currentsb. Discuss the forces that shape ocean tidesQuestion 3: Answer ONE of the following two questionsa. What is osmoregulation? Why is it important to living things? Discuss osmoregulationin one group of marine tetrapods, one group of marine fish, and one group ofmarine invertebratesb. What is neutral buoyancy? Why is the maintenance of neutral buoyancy important toliving things? Discuss buoyancy regulation in one group of marine invertebratesand one group of marine vertebrates.Question 4: Answer ONE of the following two questions:a. Discuss some environmental stresses experienced by organisms in the intertidal zoneand how intertidal organisms cope with themb. Discuss the factors contributing to the high primary productivity and species diversityof coral reefsQuestion 5: Answer ONE of the following two questions:a. Discuss some of the unique problems faced by deep-sea animals and how they copewith themb. Discuss vertical migration in zooplankton and its adaptive significanceQuestion 6: Discuss some man-made threats to the marine environment: causes, effects, solutions
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