Chapter 8 Study Guide â MultipleChoiceQuestion 1Which began first?1. a) Multicellular life in the oceanb) Plants colonizing the landc) Animals colonizing the landd) Multicellular life in fresh water Question 2What do scientists believe was the original genetic material able to copy itself without assistance?1. a) Proteinsb) RNAc) Enzymesd) DNA Question 3The main hypothesis about the origin of the first living organisms is called ________.1. a) cytosynthesisb) biogenesisc) novel designd) chemoevolution Question 4 Which organisms contain the smallest, least complex cell types?b) a)c)d)e)f)h)g) a) Plant cellsb) Animal cellsc) Bacteria cellsd) Fungal cells Question 51. An organism is considered truly eukaryotic when ________.2. a) its cells form coloniesb) its cells cannot survive on their ownc) each cell can carry out all of life’s functionsd) its cells specialize in various tasks Question 61. What are the steps toward multicellularity, in the correct order?2. a) First a colony of protists forms, then some become gametes, and finally others specialize in various tasks.b) Some protists start to specialize for specific tasks, then they form a colony with specialists, and finally some specialists become gametes.c) Some cells become gametes, then a colony forms, and finally some cells start to specialize.d) First a colony of protists forms, then some protists start to specialize in specific tasks, and finally some cells become gametes. Question 71. What are the main steps of biogenesis, in the correct order? a) Polymers, monomers, selfÂreplicating molecules, first cellsb) SelfÂreplicating molecules, monomers, polymers, first cells c) Monomers, polymers, selfÂreplicating molecules, first cellsd) Monomers, selfÂreplicating molecules, polymers, first cells Question 81. By what means do amoebas move?2. a) Ciliab) Pseudopodiac) Flagellad) Amoebas do not move; they are anchored to the substrate. Question 9Based on the endosymbiosis theory that highlights where chloroplasts come from, how would you expect chloroplasts to divide when a plant cell divides?1. a) Via endosymbiosisb) Via meiosisc) Via mitosisd) Via binary fission Question 10Which of the following infects only plants?1. a) Virusb) Prionc) Viroidd) Capsid Question 11A degenerative brain disorder transmitted by cannibalism is called ________. 1. a) scrapieb) herpesc) Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseased) kuru Question 12Bacteria that have a spherical shape are called ________.1. a) spirillumb) bacillusc) spheroidd) coccus Question 13Which of the following is a way in which bacteria help the environment?1. a) They break down dead organisms in the soil and recycle nutrients.b) They are used to water in sewage treatment facilities.c) They remove pollutants from the environment.d) All of the above are ways in which bacteria help the environment. Question 14Where do you expect to find thermophiles?1. a) In salty environmentsb) In hot environmentsc) In anoxic environmentsd) In dry environments Question 15 How does azidothymidine (AZT) fight AIDS?1. a) It blocks the enzyme that assembles all of the parts into new viruses.b) It targets the virus for destruction.c) It blocks the virus from entering the cell.d) It blocks the enzyme that converts viral RNA to DNA. Question 16Which of the following statements is true of bacteria on this planet?1. a) There are about as many helpful as harmful bacteria.b) There are more harmful than helpful bacteria.c) There are more helpful than harmful bacteria.d) Bacteria have neither a positive nor a negative impact on human society. Question 17What are plasmids?1. a) Small, circular DNA molecules that contain just a few genes and that canbe passed on to other bacteriab) Small, circular DNA molecules that contain just a few genes but that cannot be passed on to other bacteriac) Small, circular RNA molecules that contain many genes but that cannot be passed on to other bacteriad) Small, circular RNA molecules that contain just a few genes and that canbe passed on to other bacteria Question 181. What might be the advantage to a cell if it assimilated a photosynthetic bacterium rather than digesting it?2. a) It could now live in an oxygen-free environment. b) It could now utilize hydrogen sulfide as an energy source.c) It could now use sunlight to make its food.d) It could now use glucose as an energy source. Question 19Approximately when did the earth’s crust solidify?1. a) 8 billion years agob) 2 billion years agoc) 4 billion years agod) 1 billion years ago Question 20Which method of bacterial DNA transfer involves a physical connection between thetwo bacterial cells?1. a) Binary fissionb) Transductionc) Transformationd) Conjugation Question 21Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2 gas) into ammonium (NH4). Why is this conversion important for life on Earth?1. a) Nitrogen gas leads to global warming.b) Ammonium is an important cleaning agent.c) Nitrogen gas is toxic.d) Ammonium is a very important plant nutrient. Question 22 HIV has an RNA genome that is converted to DNA when infecting a human immune cell. This type of virus is called a ________.1. a) retrovirusb) reverse transcriptasec) priond) bacteriophage Question 23Which is not a method bacteria use to generate new combinations of genes?1. a) Binary fissionb) Conjugationc) Transformationd) Transduction Question 24When did the first eukaryotic cell form?1. a) 2.1 thousand years agob) 2.1 billion years agoc) 2.1 million years agod) 3.7 billion years ago Question 25Which of the following do not get infected by viruses?1. a) Plantsb) Animalsc) Bacteriad) All of these can be infected by viruses.
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