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Which is plagiarism? 10 questions just to clarify which plagiarism?

Question Description

Plagiarism Certification Tests for Undergraduate College Students and Advanced High School Students


These tests are intended for undergraduate students in college or those under 18 years of age.

Read these directions carefully!

  • The below test includes 10 questions, randomly selected from a large inventory. Most questions will be different each time you take the test,
  • You must answer at least 9 out of 10 questions correctly to receive your Certificate.
  • You have 40 minutes to complete each test, and you must answer all 10 questions in order to to see your results. If you do not pass this test in 40 minutes, you can begin a new test. Most people complete this test in less than 15 minutes.
  • You only get 1 attempt to have each particular test evaluated (e.g., if you try using the Back button and change something, you will not get another evaluation for this test).
  • If the student version contains BOTH word-for-word and paraphrasing plagiarism, you should select word-for-word.
  • If you need help, see this document which provides criteria for determining plagiarism that are used in this test.
  • Privacy notice: If you pass a test, unique information displayed on your Certificate is also stored in a secure location.

Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Precedent is also described as "the unique knowledge embedded in a known design" (Oxman, 1994, p. 146), meaning, in everyday terms, that the memory of having experienced an existing design is a memory that contains special forms of knowledge… At heart, the design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed. A case may be as minimal as an individual image of a commercial product, a building, an advertisement, a classroom or anything else designed; these forms of design cases appear in hundreds of magazines, design annuals, competition catalogs, display books, web portfolios and similar venues.

References:

Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 1 (1), 1-8.

According to Boling (2010, p. 2), "At heart, the design case is a description of a real artifact or experience that has been intentionally designed." She explains that the primary goal of a design case is to provide designers with precedent–defined by Oxman as "the unique knowledge embedded in a known design" (as quoted in Boling, 2010, p. 2). She further explains that expert designers are aware of numerous precedents which may be helpful in future designs. For example, educational game designers can view unique cases of game designs as precedents, which, in turn, may facilitate design of new games.

References:

Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 1 (1), 1-8.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Teacher's professional use of technology involves preparation for various classroom activities; such as, preparing instructional materials, material, communicating or collaborating with peers, students and their parents, locating digital resources, and creating lesson plans. When technology is used for instructional delivery, the teacher or students can use it. Teachers can present instruction by means of a projector or students may use computer-assisted learning applications such as drill and practice, tutorials, and simulations. technology as a tool, involves student use of basic software applications to extend their abilities to solve problems, create products, or communicate and share their perspectives with each other.

References:
Inan, F. A., & Lowther, D. L. (2010). Factors affecting technology integration in K-12 classrooms: a path model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(2), 137-154.

Technology offers a variety of rich opportunities available to teachers and students. According to Inan and Lowther (2010), there are three main purposes to use technology in schools: (a) technology for teachers to prepare instructional activities, plans, materials, and resources; (b) technology for instructional delivery for teachers and students; (c) technology as a learning tool for both teachers and students. Although technology provides a number of advantages for teaching and learning, teachers who try to integrate technology in their classrooms have encountered many obstacles that hinder potential benefits of use of technology.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated – and interesting – is how those parts are connected or related to each other. There are many kinds of systems: government systems, health systems, military systems, business systems, and educational systems, to name a few.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Systems, including both business systems, and educational systems, are actually very simple. The main idea is that systems have parts that fit together to make a whole. What is interesting is how those parts are connected together.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth (1999) maintains that we "need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories…." Such theories will "help educators and trainers to meet those needs (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity)" (p. 27).

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



Hints



Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The theory we have constructed originates with the three phases of learning described above. We have organize and adapted the features of simulations to provide the learner with the most effective and efficient presentations in order to achieve successful acquisition, application and assessment. Our general model describes five aspects of simulations and provides prescriptions for the implementation of each. It applies to all simulations for teaching principles or procedures. Specific conditions or types of simulations require their own characteristic prescriptions that are described G3 variations on the general model.

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Another ID theory that could be useful in the design of educational games is a model presented by Reigeluth and Schwartz (1989) intended for designing instruction in educational simulations. This model provides a more specific approach to designing instruction. Reigeluth and Schwartz propose three phases of the learning process which educational simulations should activate. They are: (1) acquisition of basic knowledge, (2) application of knowledge to the full range of scenarios, and (3) assessment of what has been learned. Their model for designing educational simulations is comprised of heuristics intended to inform the designer in following a set of prescriptions.

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



Hints



Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Because computer systems exhibit performative intelligence, we can teach them to do tasks. It is this very capability that makes it possible to use computers as an interactive medium for instruction and learning. It is interaction which sets computers systems apart from other media such as books, television, and film. However, present-day computers literally do not understand the culturally bound meanings of the messages which they manipulate during these interactions because such computers lack qualitative intelligence.

References:
Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can't know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124.

According to Frick (1997), computer systems demonstrate performative intelligence, when compared to other media such as books, television, and film. Computers can be programmed to do things. This feature of computer systems makes them an alternative medium for instruction and learning. However, he claims that computer systems lack the ability to understand the meaning of messages they send and receive during interaction with students and teachers.

References:
Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can't know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



Hints



Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is no other way to accommodate the facts that different children learn at different rates and have different learning needs. But to have an attainment-based rather than time-based system, we must in turn have person-based progress rather than group-based progress. And that in tum requires changing the role of the teacher to that of a coach or facilitator/manager, rather than that of dispenser of knowledge to groups of students who pass by at the ring of a bell like so many little widgets on an assembly line.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1994). The imperative for systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth & R. J. Garfinkle (Eds.). Systemic change in education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

In the new paradigm of the information age, rather than serving as a dispenser of knowledge as teachers did in the industrial age, their role must change to that of coach or facilitator of learning (Reigeluth, 1994). There is no other way to accommodate the facts that different children learn at different rates and have different learning needs (Reigeluth, 1994, p. 8).

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1994). The imperative for systemic change. In C. M. Reigeluth & R. J. Garfinkle (Eds.). Systemic change in education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



Hints



Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivismviews knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Does knowledge exist outside of, or separate from, the individual who knows? Constructivists argue that "… human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner, is a human construction."

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



Hints



Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

I accept the point that whenever learning occurs, some medium or mix of media must be present to deliver instruction. However, if learning occurs as a result of exposure to any media, the learning is caused by the instructional method embedded in the media presentation. Method is the inclusion of one of a number of possible representations of a cognitive process or strategy that is necessary for learning but which students cannot or will not provide for themselves.

References:
Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational technology research and development, 42(2), 21-29.

Media do not influence learning. Learning takes place because of the instructional methods represented in the medium which are used, rather than medium itself. It is the instructional methods which influence learning.

References:
Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational technology research and development, 42(2), 21-29.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



Hints



Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration. When learners are required to find a new portrayal of the information that has been presented, they are required to process the information at a deeper level in order to identify and demonstrate this new portrayal. When they are required to demonstrate their new portrayals to one another, this provides additional portrayals of the information being taught, thus increasing the richness of the instruction.

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

In order to make instruction more effective, learners should be required to find additional portrayals of the information which have been presented by the instructor. Learners are expected to then demonstrate their portrayals to one another. Learning from demonstrations is enhanced when learners actively engage in interaction with one another rather than passively observing the demonstration.

References:

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First principles of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-Design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base. (pp. 41-56). New York: Routledge.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?



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